source: me using FTP to copy a file over a 100Mbit connection, then extrapolating for other speeds.
therefore, the observed ~10% overhead is due to a combination of: ethernet, IP, and FTP.
crappy rule of thumb: "divide megabits-per-second by 10 to get megabytes-per-second"
meta: how would I figure this all out on my own?
like [imperative] programming, we can try to figure out what steps are needed to reach our goal and how each step works:
[for our own sake:] what's the simplest way you can connect to the Internet?
Wi-Fi: magic microwaves in the air. networks are only distinguished from each other by their name, encryption, and microwave frequency channel
wired: you plug one end of a cable into a network thing and the other end into your PC
let's use wired
you plug in a cable into a network thing, then plug the other end into your PC. what happens? your PC 'connects' to the wired network
how does the PC connect? the PC uses DHCP
what does DHCP do? it sets up your IP configuration
what is IP? a protocol for computers to talk to each other
what is an IP configuration? it's info that DHCP gives your PC